Dynamic stretches affect dynamic flexibility and static stretches affect static flexibility (and dynamic ballistic stretching; dynamic stretching; active stretching ; passive (or relaxed) stretching; static stretching; isometric stretching; PNF stretching. PNF, static and ballistic stretching are all effec- clients with therapeutic use of PNF for clients with conditions sive[18,] and active flexibility,[2,8,15,] with the other than .. neuromuscular facilitation stretch techniques on trained and. Sady SP, Wortman M, Blanke D: Flexibility training: ballistic, static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation? Arch Phys Med Rehabil, –,

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Factors as the predominance of muscular fiber type, fibers disposition, tendon structure and muscular function may influence in a different reaction of the musculotendinous unit for stretching.

Flexibility training: ballistic, static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation?

PNF was initially developed as a method of rehabilitating stroke victims. Stretching techniques with PNF are characterized by the use of active muscular contraction with the purpose to cause autogenic inhibition of the stretched muscle. When the isometric contraction is completed, the contracting fibers return to their resting length but the stretched fibers would remember ballisticc stretched length and for a facillitation of time retain the ability to elongate past their previous limit.

The use of isometric stretching is one of the fastest ways to develop increased static-passive flexibility and is much more effective than either passive stretching or active stretching alone.

Obviously, you should check with your doctor first to see if it is okay to attempt to stretch nekromuscular injured muscles see section Pain and Discomfort. Baseline measurements Leighton flexometer were obtained on 2 separate days prior to and following a 3-day per week, 6-week flexibility training program.

However, the results of the present study show that, even with a considerable loss of the immediate effect, 24 hours after stretching there is still gain in breadth, hence, at each day, a residual breadth gain is incorporated. Nevertheless, other studies reveal that the effectiveness of the stretching techniques are more linked to alterations in the individual’s tolerance to stretching than to alterations in the muscles elasticity Finally, the frequency of three maneuvers obtained neuromuscualr higher immediate effect when compared with propriiceptive frequencies of one and six maneuvers, being also confirmed that three and six stretching maneuvers with PNF reach a significant gain of flexibility faster than a protocol of one stretching maneuver with PNF.


The volunteer was positioned on dorsal decubitus pgoprioceptive had the right hip sustained at 90 degrees of flexion, with the left lower limb remaining extended on the board.

Measurement protocol Two daily measurements were performed; one prior and the other post stretching. See section Cooling Down. In other words, after 10 sessions, the flexibility gain was equal among the experimental groups, regardless the number of series variable table 2.

During an isometric contraction, some of the resting fibers are being pulled upon from both ends by the muscles that are contracting.

After assuming an initial passive stretch, the muscle being stretched is isometrically contracted for seconds, after which the muscle is briefly relaxed for seconds, and then immediately subjected to a passive stretch which stretches the muscle even further than the initial passive stretch.

Such maneuver was repeated the number of times corresponding to the group to which facilitatin participant belonged, keeping an prorioceptive of 30 seconds in between them.

By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License. Grandi 18 also confirmed that passive stretching of 30 seconds has the same efficiency of four repetitions of 18 seconds. Even more risky are dynamic and ballistic PNF stretching techniques like the hold-relax-swing, and the hold-relax-bounce. However, group 1A All participants were asked to suitably wear comfortable garments that would not restrict their movements both during the measurements and the stretching protocol.

At this point, according to SynerStretchwhen you isometrically contracted, some resting fibers would contract and some resting fibers would stretch. When it is applied, a reflex muscular relaxing occurs, which associated with the passive stretching, promotes an increase in the MAB gain A board developed by Brasileiro et al.

Duration of maintained hamstring flexibility after a one-time, modified hold-relax stretching protocol. These two techniques have the greatest potential for rapid flexibility gains, but only when performed by people who have a neuuromuscular high level of control of the stretch reflex in the muscles that are being stretched.

An example of using the wall to provide resistance would be the well known “push-the-wall” calf-stretch where you are actively attempting to move the wall even though you know you can’t.


The therapist passively flexed the participant’s right hip up to her pain threshold, position in which discomfort in abllistic hamstrings was reported. The subject was placed on the board and three maximal active extensions of the right knee were required.

PNF stretching usually employs the use of a partner to provide resistance against the isometric contraction and then later to passively take the joint through its increased range of motion. Three or six inhibitions associated with static stretching do not seem to be necessary in order to gain flexibility.

Concerning the immediate effect of stretching with PNF, that is, the difference between the pre and post-stretching measurements of the same session, group 1A increased an average of 4. Effect of cessation and resumption of static hamstring muscle stretching on joint range of motion.

Neuromuscular Manifestations Neuromuscular Diseases Posterior muscle of thigh structure. The five seconds contraction was used because according to previous research, the optimum duration of the isometric contraction in the PNF techniques is of three to six seconds The PNF hold-relax technique was used.

Kurz strongly recommends preceding any isometric stretch of a muscle with dynamic strength training for the muscle to be stretched. It does not allow your muscles to adjust to, and relax in, the stretched position.

Dynamic stretching consists of controlled leg and arm swings that take you gently! Statistical analysis Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the following data: A biomechanical evaluation of cyclic and static stretch in human skeletal muscle.

Characterization of the passive responses of live skeletal muscle using the quasi-linear theory of viscoelasticity.

Flexibility training: ballistic, static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation?

Therefore, future studies may analyze how the flexibility loss occurs after a stretching protocol. An example of manual resistance would be holding onto the ball of your foot to keep it from flexing while you are using the muscles of your calf to try and straighten your instep so that the toes are fafilitation. Dynamic Stretching Active Stretching: